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Single & Double Torsion Spring Design Resources

The section below gives some technical advice on torsion spring design, such as how to specify leg position and load requirements, common torsion leg configurations, and wire diameter sizes that we can form into large or small torsion springs.

Custom Torsion Spring Design

We help OEM engineers with their torsion spring designs

At Master Spring, we’ve been manufacturing custom torsion springs for OEMs for more than 70 years. Learn more about how we can design and manufacture the torsion springs for your next application by calling us today at 708-453-2570.

Learn more about our custom torsion spring design and prototyping services.


Two small helical torsion springs for use in electronic products

Torsion Spring Load and Deflection Requirements

The diagram to the right shows how to specify leg position and corresponding load requirements for a torsion spring.

Load and deflection requirements for torsion springs include:

  • L1 = Length of the moment arm of the first end
  • L2 = Length of the moment arm of the second end
  • P  = Load at installed position or load at final position

You can use common torsion spring specifications to find important measurements, including inner diameter, outer diameter, leg length, body length, and more. Learn

Load and deflection requirements for torsion springs include:

Figure 1 is a drawing showing load and deflection requirements for torsion spring design

Figure 1: Load and deflection requirements for torsion springs

Torsion Spring Wire Diameter

Whatever your torsion spring design, size and tolerance needs, Master Spring has the manufacturing capabilities to match. We have a wide range of CNC spring forming machines that can manufacturer custom torsion springs with wire diameters as small as 0.010” or as large as 0.250” (0.25 mm to 6.4 mm)—and any size wire in between!

Single and Double Torsion Spring Materials

We manufacture custom torsion springs from all types of material. The most common material types for torsion springs are music wire, stainless steel (type 302, type 316 and type 17-7 PH), and hard-drawn wire. Our diverse selection of springs and wire forms, coupled with our industry expertise, means you can count on us to design and manufacture a torsion spring to match your exacting needs.

Common torsion spring materials include:

  • High-carbon spring wire
  • Carbon and alloy wire
  • Hard-drawn wire
  • Alloy steel wire
  • Stainless steel wire
  • Non-ferrous alloy wire
  • And many more!

Still curious? Learn about suitable uses for each material in our Properties of Materials chart.

End or Leg Configurations of Torsion Springs

There are many unique configurations for the ends and legs on a torsion spring. Some of the more common end configurations for helical torsion springs are shown below in Figure 2 from the Spring Manufacturing Institute’s Handbook of Spring Design.

Figure 2 is a drawing showing types of torsion spring leg configurations

Figure 2: Common helical torsion spring end configurations
Figure 3 is a drawing showing double torsion spring design

Figure 3: Double torsion spring design recommendation

Recommended Way to Design Double Torsion Springs

A double torsion spring should be coiled out from the center rather than in from the ends. This design allows both ends of the double spring to work together and provides unique torque for many different types of applications. Refer to Figure 3 for the recommended way to design a double torsion spring.

Checklist: Custom Torsion Spring Specifications

Download your torsion spring checklist

What information does Master Spring need to quote your torsion spring? Download the checklist to make sure you specify the critical dimensions of your custom torsion springs. For help with your torsion spring design, please call us at 708-453-2570.

Download the Torsion Spring Checklist.

The torsion spring checklist includes:

  • Material (such as music wire or stainless steel 302)
  • Diameter of hole that spring works in
  • Diameter of shaft that spring works over
  • Torque at a specified amount of deflection
  • Axial space available
  • Coil direction
  • Maximum wound position

Download the Torsion Spring Checklist

Download the Torsion Spring Checklist (PDF)


Download the Torsion Spring Checklist (PDF)

Torsion spring specifications checklist

Torsion Springs Video Gallery

Our single and double helical torsion springs are manufactured to your print. Master Spring and Wire Form has been manufacturing custom torsion springs for a variety of applications for over 70 years.

We specialize in supplying OEMs their requirements of medium to high quantities of springs and wire forms. Browse our gallery of torsion spring designs or visit the custom torsion spring product page to learn about our capabilities.


A Torsion Spring Success Story

Manufacturing Springs for Commercial Lighting

At Master Spring and Wire Form, we take great pride in working with OEM engineers to improve their products by improving their spring and wire form components—and we think that this customer story featuring double torsion spring for commercial lights is a great example of that expertise.



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